It must be kept in mind that within the scope of one study, the presence of a number of research questions will affect and potentially increase the complexity of both the study design and subsequent statistical analyses, not to mention the actual feasibility of answering every question. If you are developing your question for a course other than first-year composition, you may want to discuss your ideas for a research question with your professor. The conclusions drawn from bad research usually are later shown to be completely or partly invalid; they make only incorrect predictions, and are inconsistent with other bodies of knowledge. A research focus should be narrow, not broad-based. Example: Among young children, there is a positive relationship between level of psychomotor coordination and degree of self-esteem. How do these skills and behaviors change over time? You will be the one working on them! Judging Research Quality is Not a Simple Matter! What research process will ensure that you find a variety of perspectives and responses to your question? Clear and simple The complexity of a question can frequently hide unclear thoughts and lead to a confused research process.
In-depth knowledge about a subject may generate a number of questions. Too objective: How much time do young children spend doing physical activity per day? We have wide-ranging data sources ready for you to use on-site to better understand everything from key legislation affecting your industry and emerging technologies through to potential opportunities created by economic, cultural or social changes. Research objective The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. These concepts will be discussed in other articles in this series. That theoretical knowledge on the subject is available.
In addition, awareness of current trends and technological advances can assist with the development of research questions. . Peer review of proposals and applications for financial support of research aims to make judgements be as objective as possible. The question is focused and clear although it may be more appropriate for an undergraduate-level dissertation. Can this data be accessed within the limited time and resources you have available to you? In this case, it will be necessary for you to think carefully before making such a choice. What access do you have to it? Rephrase the ; ensure that its answer will contribute to the solving the identified problem. Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided.
Rework the concepts in your problem statement and restate your main question. The following guidelines highlight some of the features of good questions. How much time do you listen to rock music a week? Why is a research question essential to the research process? Formulating the Research Question Introduction In the previous section we talked about ways to define your topic, but there is a difference between a topic and a question. Another good research question asks what is the effect of early-childhood intervention programs on childhood obesity rates. Knowing the specific population of interest, intervention and comparator and outcome of interest may also help the researcher identify an appropriate outcome measurement tool. What is a research question? An issue is a concept upon which you can take a stand. Rephrase the main question; going deeper into a particular topic is often more interesting.
The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery. A listing of official criteria for evaluating merit in the very numerous research grant applications sent to the National Institutes of Health see: or to the National Science Foundation see: are published at periodic intervals. Research Question Data Sources and Methods Justification Practicalities e. Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task. The question must be do-able within the given limitations of time, money, capacities, resources as well as be worth undertaking. Start with an uncluttered question then unpeel the layers in your reading and writing.
How do the rates of obesity change over the elementary years? Then list all of the questions that you'd like answered yourself. Ideally, experimental studies answer a research question in a complete and unambiguous manner that is consistent with other known results. The clearer version specifies sites MySpace and Facebook , the type of potential harm privacy issues , and who may be experiencing that harm users. Questions then arise out of a perceived knowledge deficit within a subject area or field of study. Unfocused and too broad: What are the effects of childhood obesity in the United States? They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study. Choose the best question, one that is neither too broad nor too narrow.
More Subjective: What is the relationship between physical activity levels and childhood obesity? After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear. How can the sexual health counseling that mental healthcare workers in Rotterdam provide to young people in district X be improved? Designing a research hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. You can download the entire document. How might you be able to negotiate access? Research hypothesis The primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data. Main research question Is it good? It was probably a research question in the past, but if the answer is so thoroughly known that you can easily look it up and find it, then it is no longer an open question. Unfocused: What is the effect on the environment from global warming? It is challenging to offer an opinion, judgment or value while remaining objective which is a prerequisite for good research.
If the concepts are too broad, your research will be unnecessarily complex. A sensible approach to decide about relevance is to think of the different outcomes which are likely to occur and think about how each possibility may progress scientific knowledge, influence management, or guide future research. Additional research questions can be developed, but several basic principles should be taken into consideration. Is the methodology to conduct the research feasible? Avoid using two different terms to refer to the same variable. Too simple: How are school systems addressing childhood obesity? Some examples of good research questions are whether the events of Sept. Objectives of this article In this article, we discuss important considerations in the development of a research question and hypothesis and in defining objectives for research.
The more complex version is written in two parts; it is thought provoking and requires both significant investigation and evaluation from the writer. What is the benefit of answering your research question? There might be that you have a very important question, that happens not to belong in the mainstream, then nobody will pay any attention on your paper. The investigative team would first state a research hypothesis. What types of services, instructional strategies, and assistive devices are provided to children with different types of disabilities? As personal integerity decreases, there is increased likelihood that rigor of this important task for making objective evaluations is not maintained e. Sometimes a research question appears feasible, but when you start your fieldwork or library study, it proves otherwise.