He can change his religion at will. Nor does technological progress guarantee moral development. Economic boycott, their chief political weapon, was indeed very modern as also their political organisation. Communalism was, of course, not the only constituent of the policy of Divide and Rule. Ulama tried to preserve a Muslim society through their activities.
This is a very vast issue. Communalism, started rooting deeply, as it was an expression of aspiration and interest of middle class for less opportunity. Jinnah, now bitterly opposed to Congress spread the cry that the Muslims minority was in danger of being engulfed by Hindu majority, propagated the two nation theory i. However, the quality of the secularism of the Indian state and most of the political parties has had many weaknesses and has, in fact, seldom been very sturdy. Thus Majority Communalism may lead to a Holocaust or Genocide whereas Minority Communalism leads to separatism. The Turkish ruler claimed at this time to be also the Caliph or religious head of all Muslims; moreover, nearly all of the Muslim holy places were situated within the Turkish Empire. This model arose out of initiatives of B.
For example, one aspect of the growth of communalism in Punjab was the effort of the big Muslim landlords to protect their economic and social position by using communalism to turn the anger of their Muslim tenants against Hindu traders and moneylenders, and the use of communalism by the latter to protect their threatened class interests by raising the cry of Hindu interests in danger. So long as this cross-border factor is not removed, communal problems are likely to stay in India. This was accepted by both the League and Congress. India has adopted the principles of secularism and equality of the people. Watch this lesson to know more about these movements. Communalism in history writing: Initially suggested by imperialist historians and later adopted by some chauvinist Indian historians, the communal interpretation of Indian history portrayed the ancient phase as the Hindu phase and the medieval phase as the Muslim phase.
The number of persons killed in riots increased from 7 in 1958 to 41 in 1959 and 108 in 1961. Politicians try to turn these communities into vote banks and different communities become watertight compartments. The landlord and moneylender parties also fared badly. Tarqah-i-Muhammadiyah and another movement called the Dar ul-Ulum Deoband revived Muslims in Utter Pradesh and Bihar. Political leaders and organisations do not hesitate to use religion for getting a share in political power. This fact relates not only to India but also to many other countries of the world.
The opposition parties try to negate this by winning such groups through verbal support and recognition of their interests. Communalism in South Asia is used to denote the differences between the various religious groups and difference among the people of different community. For example Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha after 1937. Sometimes, communalism is seen as something that has survived from the past, as something that the medieval period has bequeathed to the present or at least as having roots in the medieval period. It is not true that communalism must arise inevitably in a multi-religious society.
The communal element in the Lucknow Pact 1916 and the Khilafat agitation 1920-22 was too visible to be of insignificant consequences. This feature has adversely affect the ability of the political system to control communalism. A Sabha meeting was conducted in Lahore in 1906 and it formed its aims, action plans and plans for further expansion. Moreover, changes in agrarian relations threw up new strata of rich and middle peasants and capitalist farmers, that is, rural bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie, who provided a fertile ground for the germination and spread of communal and casteist ideologies, movements and parties. The remedy of constitutional safeguards to root out the chronic malaise of communalism and casteism shall not have desired effect unless it is tackled by society itself.
Muslims reacted aggressively against the Supreme Court judgement which granted a Muslim divorcee, Shah Bano, maintenance in excess and in protraction of the Shari'ah, which permits maintenance only for the iddah three months post-divorce period. Reforms, at times, were seen as a process of insulating one community from the influence of another religious community. At the same time, to give their struggle a wider base, they also used other group identities such as caste, province and religion to enhance their capacity to compete. For example, Ashoka followed religious tolerance and focussed mainly on Dhamma. Though, overall, there are greater economic opportunities available for the people, there is far greater inequality than before in regard to access to them. Moreover, Hindus and the Muslims were being equally and jointly oppressed and exploited by British imperialism. Politics of appeasement Political parties, prompted by political considerations, take decisions, which promote communal violence.
Issues like cow slaughter, Urdu-Hindi conflict, Dusshera and Muharram falling in the same month, clashes for procession, etc. It made it necessary to have wider links and loyalties among the people and to form new identities. Some political leaders preach communalism to attain their immediate political goal. The impact of this movement was that Hindu community identity and Muslim community identity gained considerable growth in public; and hostility between these groups increased. In India, till 1880 communal consciousness as a driving force was absent both in the Hindus and the Muslims. Those who talk of being national, regional, or class leaders are merely masquerading; beneath the mask they are only leaders of their own communities.
It was the purposeful colonial policy of divide and rule that laid the seeds of communalism which grew into a huge tree that disturbed the solidarity, of the age-old mosaic of India and it is still haunting to sap the vitality of the newly won independence. This process required the birth and spread of modern ideas of nation, class and cultural-linguistic identity. That violence is like black spot in the history of the Gujarat and nation too, as people were killed without any mercy. These concessions to Muslim and Hindu communalisms did not lessen communal tensions but only aggravated them. The League was instrumental in spreading communalism among the Muslims. And then again it takes years for the people and the affected regions to come out the traumas of such violence, having deep impact on minds of those who have faced it. It was also not easy to convince Hindus, who constituted the large religious majority in India, that their religion was in any danger.
We have had at least two pogroms since Independence. These are the few ones to name and there are many more, which may sensitise us about such issues, so that in future it can be avoided. Each of us, have to make a balance between our own religious community and national interests, we have to unite with nationalism, and then should move forward. The Indian people are still basically secular, and the believers in communal ideology constitute a fringe. Thus, the traditional beliefs of the society are perpetuated to the advantage of the elites.