Carol Stack found errors in her findings of Gilligan. Knowing why an individual make the type of decision one makes with a moral dilemma is needed. What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? The first criticism that I would like to address is that of his research methods. The education reformer should concern about it. Kohlberg dedicated most of his research to it. The kid or adolescent start to judge the morality of his or her actions in relation to the blessing of his or her household.
To reason in a conventional way is to judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. Individual tends to follow these principles of justice, even in case there are certain conflicts of this person with rules and laws. Kohlberg identified six stages of moral grouped into three major levels. This level is divided into the stages of interpersonal conformity and law and order orientation, with a transition stage before the post conventional level. For example, a person who justified a decision on the basis of principled reasoning in one situation post-conventional morality stage 5 or 6 would frequently fall back on conventional reasoning stage 3 or 4 with another story. Morality comes from the Latin word for custom.
This is often taught thought punishment. Our morals decide what we believe is just. He is not so much focused on the right or wrong answer but in the reasoning behind the decision making. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. He wanted to understand how they develop a sense of right or wrong and how justice is served.
Furthermore, if one desires to maintain respect for laws and regulations it is advisable not to enact any where a watch cannot easily be kept on whether they are obeyed or transgressed. The manner in which moral judgments develop has been studied extensively by Kohlberg, through the questioning of boys seven years old and up. When one begins with the study of women and derives developmental constructs from their lives, the outline of a moral conception different from that described by Freud, Piaget, or Kohlberg begins to emerge and informs a different description of development. Alice, an employee at McDonald fries, realized that the firm was engaging in unethical business practice by concealing some vital truth about the fat they used for their products. For such purposes a brief case study has been made interviewing in person a 37 years old Caucasian woman, which identifies herself as having strong Christian religious beliefs. Men are likely to move on to the abstract principles, and thus have less concern with the particulars of who is involved.
There were six stages three levels : avoiding punishment, self-interest, good boy attitude, law and order morality, social contract, and principle. Meanwhile, collectivist cultures emphasize the significance of community and society, whereas individualistic cultures highlight the essential role of personal rights. This was to revolutionize psychological assessment in the social-moral domain. Gilligan argued that by building his model on a sample of men, Kohlberg had failed to include the perspectives of women, and further, had relegated women to the status of deviants from the norm. Stage two self —interest orientation with older kids. Kohlberg tested a cross-sectional sample of 7-.
The resulting consensus is the action taken. Stage 2 is characterized by limited interest to the needs of others. However, this interest is of egocentric. Based on the findings, the psychologist concluded that adults and children are mainly progressing through 6 stages in the development of moral reasoning. The three levels under these six stages are Preconventional Morality between ages four-ten, Conventional Morality ages 10-13, and Postconventional Morality from adolescence to adulthood. This methodology, which is grounded on grand theories of moral judgment and development, is supported by a massive body of experimental research.
Obedience and punishment orientation 2. The individual will judge as right or wrong depending on the moral standing of the society that they form part Blair, 2012. Its educational mission is achievement. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation Law and order morality Level 3 Post-Conventional 5.
A conformist attitude may also occur; yet there is a true sense of ethical commitment. In this study he soon became Kohlberg six stages of moral development from this study. The primary theorist in the study of moral development is Lawrence Kohlberg and psychologists rely on his work. According to Kohlberg, someone progressing to a higher stage of moral reasoning cannot skip stages. It may be that many psychologists react to Kohlberg in a similar manner.
Kohlberg researched more on the different stages using a sample of 72 boys. Examples of such a moral perception as well as that of the sixth stage are Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Chico Mendes, the defender of Amazonian Forests. The division into subtype , while primarily representing attitudinal orientations , is also intended to represent some transitional cognitive developmental material. Other psychologists have questioned the assumption that moral action is primarily a result of. Actions are seen as isolated events, and the wider context is hardly seen. The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, 1984.