The theory distinguishes between normal aging and pathological aging, so it neglects older adults who suffer from chronic illness. Primary care nursing becomes increasingly important when aging is viewed from the perspective of continuity theory. Along with the chosen theory must come a vast majority of collection of data in order to measure, analyze, conduct experiments, and prove whether your theory was correct or not and why? Basically, good stuff should be continued because it's good stuff! When disengagement theory was popular, supporters believed that it explained how people prepared for death. Contacts with the elderly can be enriched and enhanced by an understanding of psychosocial development across the life span. Of course, age itself should not form the basis of the occupational intervention, nor should it be used to predict rehabilitation outcomes in individual clients. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1975.
The Internal and External Structures of Continuity: Older adults hold on to many of the beliefs, practices, and relationships they had in the past as they continue to age. Criticism The disengagement theory has always been strongly criticized. The aging process brings changes to the lungs and its surroundings such as stiffness, loss of elasticity, weaker muscles and shrunken airways. Instead of seeking power, the ego of an older evolves to seek out personal enjoyment. Simultaneously younger adults are trained to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to take over the roles played by those who disengage. They, in separate studies, found that patterns of activity in old age suggested continuing life patterns and styles when measured in relation to each individual's own baseline behavior.
Those contributions are focused on the central roles that people play in this theory. Back in 1975 the author Cummings put an argument forward that older people would experience a larger reduction in social contact as they grew older, they became increasingly lonely as they withdraw from society and they become less concerned with the expectations of other people. Also this view is the total opposite of the newer activity theory. Who will still be around, and will you care that they are there? How well do young middle-class occupational therapists understand the lives of low-income older adults? A study by Havighurst, Neugarten, and Tobin6 found some support for both the activity theory and the disengagement theory. Hos Practice March :99-lt 6, 1978. For example, ill-health is very common in old age and this could then mean that social involvement may be very hard for an individual as they find it difficult to hear or see.
Compare and contrast one of the other theories mentioned in the chapter i. The premise of continuity theory is that elders adapt to changes by using strategies to maintain continuity in their lives, both internal and external. The tailoring of activity programs designed for diverse groups of aging women might be time intensive, but the benefits to both the older adult and the broader community outweigh the effort needed. Other internal aspects such as beliefs can remain relatively constant as well, though are also subject to change. But it also makes it difficult to conceptualize, measure, and analyze. Andrew Wyle, hypothesize that feeling needed, and actually being important to their families, is a large part of what is helping Okinawans to live longer lives, and avoid many of the illness' related to aging.
The optimal amount of continuity provides sufficient challenge for change but not so much challenge that the person is overwhelmed. In this paper I will present and examine three psychosocial theories of aging: activity theory, disengagement theory, and continuity theory. Each attempts to explain how one ages successfully without really defining success. The other two major psychosocial theories are the and the , and the disengagement theory comes to odds with both. A person loses ego energy. The society actually rejects older people from a lot of activities. His argument was that it was appropriate and sometime healthy for the older to withdraw from others and disengagement was a natural part of the ageing process.
According to the theory, these choices represent successful and adaptive responses for older people who normally find their lifestyles and philosophies inconsistent with those maintained by popular culture or mainstream society. Work in the 1950s was often very hard on the body and the medical care was not what we're used to today. Nervous system As people age, their brain and spinal cord lose nerve cells and weight. When older adults are able to make the essential adaptations and accommodations necessary to maintain a coherent sense of identity, successful aging is possible. It furnishes an orderly means for the transfer of knowledge, capital, and power from the older generation to the young. Phasing out of employment means that there will be more time for family and friends and volunteer pursuits. This is because older people will disengage due to reduced physical health and loss of social opportunities.
Critics point out that often this disengagement is enforced, rather than voluntary; someone who needs to move to a , for example, experiences a curtailment of her social circle as her friends may not be able to visit, and may start to die, leaving her with fewer connections. This theory builds upon and modifies the Activity Theory. As a result, the aging person gradually disconnects from existing social roles and responsibilities and does not take up any new ones. Be sure to support your answer. Because the continuity theory, as I will show later, seems to hold the most promise of explaining the full reality of aging, I will also address the nursing implications related to it.
Activity theory reflects the functionalist perspective that the equilibrium, that an individual develops in middle age, should be maintained in later years. New York, Basic Books, Inc. Eventually, they only have contact with close friends and family members. They need to be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon apathetic attitudes and fixed habits. According to their theory, as people age, they tend to withdraw from society, and this can be mutual, with society being less likely to engage with and include older people. If you need a or on this topic please use our.