During the next year or more Frederick, as a punishment, was employed as a junior official in local administration and deprived of his military rank. Behind the scenes, however, she seemed to have quite the sexual appetite. Her reorganization in 1775 of provincial administration—in such a way as to favor the nobility—stood the test of time; but her reorganization of municipal government 10 years later was less successful. What was once a strong bond between the two former lovers soon soured, with Catherine forcing Poniatowski to abdicate and Russia leading the effort to break up and dissolve the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Her close friends described her as a very good-looking woman throughout her entire life and appreciated her amiability, noble simplicity and tact. Catherine: The portrait of an empress.
In response, Catherine made some attempts to improve the lot of Russian serfs, notably giving them the right to take legal action against landowners who mistreated them. While it was Peter I reign 1682-1725 that brought about reforms that gave women greater freedom to pursue education it was during the mid-18th century, the time that Catherine the Great rose to power, that female artists also rose in Russia. Before she was able to alter her original arrangement, however, she died of a stroke on November 6, 1796. In bygone years it had been semi-autonomous. Shortly after his arrest he was killed in a brawl with his captors.
It was a daring coup and, amazingly, succeeded without bloodshed. She suggested looking at a map. In 1786 she adopted a plan that would create a large-scale educational system. A legacy is anything handed down from the past, as from an ancestor or predecessor So what is Catherine's legacy? During her reign, Catherine gave away many state-owned peasants to become private serfs owned by a landowner. During the first six years of the war, Elizabeth focused on diplomatic both covert and overt and military efforts that aimed to deprive Frederick the Great and Prussia of their position as a the major European ruler and power. Catherine issued a decree in 1764 to all governor-generals instructing them to compile an accurate census, map their provinces and report on agriculture and trade in the district. In order to cultivate the underpopulated areas she advertized in foreign newspapers, mostly German, for settlers offering attractive terms and incentives.
While Russia was still technically at war with the Turks, Yemelyan Pugachev, a , led a revolt at home. Russia also saw a flood of European immigrants. To add to this, Catherine had a graceful and beautifully proportioned figure. At the age of 14 she took a three-sided decision: to enchant her husband, Empress Elizabeth and the people of Russia. Perhaps it was because of Catherine's sympathy and Peter's evil that caused the Imperial Guard to help her overthrow him on June 28, 1762. In doing this I think she more than earned the title.
Though her enemies would have hoped for a scandalous end, the simple truth is that Catherine suffered a stroke and died quietly in her bed the following day. Its achievements, however, stemmed from the supplied from above by the king rather than from any creative force inherent in the system itself. Two other favorites, Grigory Orlov and Stanislaw August Poniatowski, are said to have fathered two additional children - a boy and a girl that only lived sixteen months - who were never publicly acknowledged. But his act was based on serious miscalculation, and his forces were soundly beaten by the Russians. This triumph was credited to the diplomatic ability of the new vice chancellor, Aleksey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, the head of foreign affairs.
By the time Peter ascended to the throne, he was openly cruel to his wife and considering pushing her aside to allow his mistress to rule with him. Catherine, in return, hated her husband. He must not rely on ministers who were likely to be influenced by selfish ambitions or factional feeling and who might well keep important information from their master if they were allowed to. Her education emphasized the subjects considered proper for one of her station: religion Lutheranism , history, French, German, and music. He negotiated peace with Prussia and signed both an armistice and a treaty of peace and friendship.
War and Revolt 1768-1774 Foreign affairs now began to demand Catherine's major attention. Catherine styled herself after the beloved ruler , claiming that she was following in his footsteps. In fact, it is believed that Catherine intended to make this official in late 1796 but died before she was able to do so. The monarchs who embraced it followed the participles of rationality. The fact that Catherine brought in many foreigners, as settlers, as craftsmen, as military officers, as state officials also contributed to alienating Russians.
The same year, she also issued the Charter of the Towns, which distributed all people into six groups as a way to limit the power of nobles and create a middle estate. The statute sought to efficiently govern Russia by increasing population and dividing the country into provinces and districts. There were no law schools or other form of traditional training until the founding of Moscow University in 1755, when the teaching of jurisprudence began. A large range of industries emerged: linen, pottery, leather goods and furniture. She expanded the Senate in 1762, bolstered the office of Procurator-General in 1763 and 1764 she incorporated Ukraine into the empire by abolishing a self-governed Cossack community in Southern Ukraine centered at the Dnieper River that had its own political and administrative center, the hetmanship, also known as hetmanate. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768—1774 resulted in bringing Southern Ukraine, the Northern Caucasus and the Crimea under the possession of the Russian Empire.
She wrote comedies, fiction, and memoirs while cultivating the French encyclopedists, who later cemented her reputation in their writings. Two years later, after lengthy negotiations, Catherine concluded peace with Turkey, restricting herself to relatively modest but nonetheless important gains. Catherine wanted to modernize Russia. Another aspect of Catherine the Great's reign was an ambitious foreign policy. Although the exemption from the obligatory service was welcomed by the Russian elites, the overall reform did not convince them to support their emperor, who was generally considered as taking little interest in Russia and its matters. Others claimed that she died on the toilet.