If Alexander needed one court ritual, he needed to become a god. Through the writings of Plutarch, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, and Pliny, I see Alexander the Great as a justly motivated, intelligent military hero. Alexander quickly swept across what was left of western Persian easily conquering all the lands east of the Euphrates while Darius gathered a fighting force in a final last ditch attempt to regain his empire, the two armies would meet at the plain of Gaugamela. After the battle at Granicus River, Alexander conquered the western half of Asia Minor; and by the winter of 332 B. Their advance was halted when they reached , the capital of , which was defended by a Greek commander in Persian service,. Before his death, Alexander's troops, concerned he was already dead, demanded to see him. All of Alexander's actions and military genius influenced later generals such as Hannibal, Napoleon, and Caesar.
Most were Macedonians or hired Greek mercenaries that were paid in booty from the conquests. Many people say that when you are fighting a bear, since you are physically overwhelmed you have to drive the knife straight into the crucial point of the bear, the heart to win and that is exactly what Alexander did, after he and his elite companion cavalry had found a gap in the Persian lines he and the companions drove straight through it and headed point blank at Darius. What made him such a great man? Alexander was sixteen years old when his father marched on Thrace and Alexander was left in charge of Macedonia in his absence. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Words: 1885 - Pages: 8. In 2009, Macedonia raised eyebrows when it proposed building an eight-story-high statue of Alexander the Great in the center of its capital Skopje. There he finally turned back, retreating to Babylon, where he established his court.
By the winter of 332 B. Alexander did not rest on his accomplishments. Alexander did not have a plan for who would inherit his empire. Words: 645 - Pages: 3. Many Indians seemed to identify the conqueror with an avatar of a local deity, who was identified by the Macedonians with their god Dionysus. Cavalry made up about a sixth of the army.
He often ignored the advise of his generals who advised caution and seemed little worried if his enemies held the high ground or some other advantageous military position. Greek-influenced images of the Buddhist gods Vaisravana and Majakala have been found in Pakistan. Soldiers were armed with swords and wore armored helmet and breastplate like the Greeks and used a round shield for protection. A Note on the Sources. There was an insurrection among the , led by a man named , who may have been an influential man in the religious community. He suffered severe sword, lance, arrow and knife wounds.
Many cities surrendered while some, such as , which was on an island, put up a fight and forced Alexander to lay siege. Alexander quickly assembled a modest fighting force of 37,000 Greek and Macedonian infantrymen along with 5000 cavalry units and marched into Asia Minor and faced his first line of resistance at the Granicus River. He burned, however, the great palace city of Persepolis in revenge for the Persian destruction of Athens. Alexander now ordered the executions of several governors whom he suspected of treason. Contemporary scholars have viewed Alexander as a philosophical idealist, striving to create unity of man-kind by his so-called fusion of the races policy. Surely this should be enough to put him in the historian hall of fame or is it? Key Philosopher: Zeno of Cyprus 335—263 B. He even wore local clothes of the Persians to earn support of the Persian people, something the soldiers that fought under him took offence to.
Under his headship, his unification of Greek city-states led to one of the largest empires known today. Alexander was very upset; he then built the city of Bucephala in memory of his beloved horse. Early in 331, he added Egypt, which was without defense, to his conquests. The effects of Alexander's conquests and politics on the West are well documented. Alexander promoted a public image of himself as a disciplined general, and he lived up to it. Macedonians and Greeks made up the ruling class. In the spring of 326, he reached the mighty , where he attacked a group of refugees on a mountain citadel called.
In 2009, Macedonia raised eyebrows when it proposed building an eight-story-high statue of Alexander the Great in the center of its capital Skopje. Antigonid Dynasty Encyclopedia Articles: Listing that shows the two periods of Antingonid rule over Macedonia. Those conquests would restructure the world order and unite East and West as a cohesive whole in a way beyond what anyone had, up to that point, dreamed of. The 2 sides clashed and it seemed clear that it was so far a stalemate but with his 5-1 numerical advantage Darius could hold out longer and win. Alexander employed bullocks and oxen young and old castrated bulls to carry the supplies, and the tactical range of his army was eight days, the maximum length of time in which an ox can carry supplies and food for itself. Earlier attempts to win their hearts by accepting Persian royal garments had been acceptable to the Macedonians, and Alexander expected that they would also accept the introduction of , the Persian court ritual.
Some claim that he was a deranged, bloodthirsty general who only sought personal triumph, while others thought that he was a military hero who sought unity among all men. Eventually, Alexander ordered mass deportations to become master of the situation. Yet, Alexander overcame their complaints and ordered Craterus to bring back the veterans to Europe. Alexander exiled himself and Olympias for a short period of time until Phillip invited Alexander back. This was to be the greatest mistake of Alexander's career: he lost many people in the hot and waterless area. The cities helped disseminate Greek culture. West Nile virus encephalitis was not identified until 1937 but is thought to have been around much longer than that.
This biography traces the life and legacy of Alexander the Great from its beginnings through his successful conquests to his legacy. Unhappy soldiers were placed in a punitive battalion. Taking advantage of this, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as Sandrokottos , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire. Administrative realities sometimes clashed with codes that kept military moral high. The king was shocked, and as a consolation, he massacred the , a mountain tribe in the Zagros, who were forced to give up their nomad lives and settle in towns. He single-handedly- in attempt to finish a mission his father had started- changed the nature of the ancient western world.